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By the first decade of the 21st Century, Riverside was a community split into fragments. The city’s information technology department – including the position of CIO – had been outsourced in the Nineties, which created an ideal opportunity for the outsourcer to maximize its own revenue at the city’s expense. Population growth was rapidly outstripping the ability of the city to manage it. By 2004, resident satisfaction with city departments was at an all-time low. Smog and traffic were seen as severe problems. Police operations were in such disarray that the US Government had to intervene. And university graduates, diplomas in hand, quickly decamped for more promising locations.